Bhai Sati Das Ji (died 1675) along with his elder brother Bhai Mati Das Ji is one of the greatest martyrs in Sikh history. Bhai Sati Das Ji and his elder brother Bhai Mati Das Ji were followers of ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji. Bhai Sati Das Ji, Bhai Mati Das Ji […]

Bhai Sati Das Ji (died 1675) along with his elder brother Bhai Mati Das Ji is one of the greatest martyrs in Sikh history. Bhai Sati Das Ji and his elder brother Bhai Mati Das Ji were followers of ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji. Bhai Sati Das Ji, Bhai Mati Das Ji and Bhai Dyal Das Ji were all executed at Kotwali (police-station) near the Sunehri Masjid in the Chandni Chowk area of Old Delhi, under the express orders of Emperor Aurangzeb.

Early life

Bhai Sati Das Ji was a Mohyal Brahmin of the Chhibber clan. He belonged to the village of Karyala, a stronghold of the Chhibbers, in the Jhelum District in Punjab (Pakistan), about ten kilometres from Chakwal on the road to the Katas Raj Temple Complex. The village stands on the top of the Surla hills. This part of the country is known as Dhani meaning rich. A few kilometres away are the Salt Mines and coal mines of Dandot. The Katas lake is beautiful. Legend connects it to the Mahabharata. It is believed to be the very pool, where the Pandava, Yudhishtira was tested by his father, Lord Yama/Dharma in the form of a Yaksha. A great Hindu fair used to be held there up to 1947.

Devotion to the Gurus

Bhai Sati Das Ji was the son of Hira Nand, a disciple of Guru Har Gobind Singh Ji, under whom he had fought in many battles. He survived the Guru, and a little before his death he had entrusted his two sons, Bhai Mati Das and Bhai Sati Das to the care of Guru Har Rai Sahib Ji, who had assured the dying man of his full attention and help. Both the lads remained attached to the Guru’s family at Kiratpur. When Guru Har Krishan Sahib Ji was summoned to Delhi by Aurangzeb, both the brothers, Bhai Mati Das Ji and Bhai Sati Das Ji, were present in his entourage along with Bhai Dyal Das Ji and Bhai Gurditta Ji, a descendant of Bhai Budha Ji (different from Baba Gurditta Ji, the son of Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, brother of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji and father of Guru Har Rai Ji).

Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji

On Guru Har Krishan Sahib Ji’s death at Delhi, these two brothers were included in the deputation of five men containing Bhai Dyal Das Ji and Bhai Gurditta Ji to declare the nomination of Tegh Bahadur Ji as the ninth Guru at the village of Bakala where the new Guru was then residing. The Guru was pleased to offer the two important portfolios of finance and home departments to Bhai Mati Das Ji and Bhai Sati Das Ji respectively. Both knew Persian well, and were quite familiar with the working of the Guru’s durbar. The departmnent of household affairs was entrusted to Bhai Dyal Das.

While Bhai Mati Das Ji was Dewan at Guru’s court, Bhai Sati Das Ji was a writer cum translator of a high calibre. He was a scholar of Persian language. He used to write in Persian, the utterings of Guru ji which were later translated and written in Gurmukhi script by him.

The two brothers accompanied Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji during his journey to Assam. Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji bought a hillock near the village of Makhowal five miles north of Kiratpur and established a new town, which he named as Anandpur (the abode of bliss). Bhai Mati Das Ji and Bhai Sati Das Ji were present at the foundation of Anandpur. The Guru’s council of administration then consisted of Bhai Mati Das Ji, Bhai Sati Das Ji, Bhai Dyal Das Ji and Bhai Gurditta Ji. When the Guru was arrested and taken to Delhi, these four persons followed the Guru.


Bhai Sati Das ji tortured and executed by the muslims at Delhi, the Guru and his four companions were summoned into the council chamber of the Red Fort. The Guru was asked numerous questions on religion, Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam. It was suggested to the Guru that he should embrace Islam. On the Guru’s emphatic refusal to abjure his faith, he was asked why he was called Tegh Bahadur (gladiator or Knight of the Sword; before this, his name had been Tyag Mal). Bhai Mati Das Ji immediately replied that the Guru had won the title by inflicting a heavy blow on the imperial forces at the young age of fourteen. He was reprimanded for his breach of etiquette and outspokenness. As for the Kashmiri Pandits, it was his duty to raise his voice against cruelty and injustice. The Guru and his companions were ordered to be imprisoned and tortured until they agreed to embrace Islam.

After a few days, Guru Tegh Bahadur and three of his companions were produced before the Qazi of the city. Bhai Gurditta Ji had managed to escape. He remained in hiding in the city, and in spite of all the efforts of the Government, he could not be traced. The Qazi turned to Mati Das first and asked him to embrace Islam. He refused to do so. He was condemned to an instantaneous death.

The executioners were called and the Guru and all the three of his companions were made to sit at the place of the execution. Bhai Sati Das Ji approached the Guru with folded hands and asked for his blessings, saying that he was happy to be the first to achieve martyrdom.

The Guru blessed him telling that they must resign themselves cheerfully to the will of the Lord. He praised him for his lifelong single-minded devotion to him and his cause. With tears in his eyes, he bade him farewell saying his sacrifice would occupy an abiding place in history. Bhai Mati Das touched the Guru’s feet, embraced his friend and brother, and came to his place.

Bhai Dayal Das and Bhai Mati Das

Bhai Dyal Das abused the Emperor and his courtiers for this infernal act. He was tied up like a round bundle and thrown into a huge cauldron of boiling oil. He was roasted alive into a block of charcoal. Mati Das condemned these brutalities. He was hacked to pieces limb by limb. The Guru witnessed all this savagery with divine calm.

Guru Tegh Bahadur’s Martyrdom

Bhai Mati Das Ji, Bhai Dyal Das Ji and Bhai Sati Das Ji were tortured and executed on three consecutive days.

With the execution of Bhai Sati Das JI, the Kazis of Emperor Aurangzeb were disheartened and dismayed. They were expecting that at least one among the three of Guru’s Sikhs would be attracted by lures of luxurious lives out of love for life and agreed to get converted to Islam.

Now they were left with no illusions that they could still persuade the 9th Guru of the Sikhs to adopt Islam, thereby opening the floodgate of conversion of the Hindus of India into Islam.

The disciples of Sikh Gurus derive inspiration from these three sikh martyrs for all time to come and emulate their examples that no sacrifice is too high for one’s religion and faith.

Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was beheaded by an executioner called Jalal-ud-din Jallad, who belonged to the town of Samana in present-day Haryana. The spot of the execution was under a banyan tree (the trunk of the tree and well near-by where he took a bath are still preserved), opposite the Sunheri Masjid near the Kotwali in Chandni Chowk where he was lodged as a prisoner, on November 11, 1675.

His head was carried by Bhai Jaita Ji, a disciple of the Guru, to Anandpur where the nine-year old Guru Gobind Singh Ji cremated it(The gurdwara at this spot is also called Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib). The body, before it could be quartered, was stolen under the cover of darkness by Bhai Lakhi Shah Vanjara, another disciple who carried it in a cart of hay and cremated it by burning his hut. At this spot, the Gurdwara Rakab Ganj Sahib stands today. Later on, the Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib, was built at Chandni Chowk at the site of Guru’s martyrdom.


In recognition of the devotion and supreme sacrifice made by Bhai Mati Das Ji, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji bestowed the title of Bhai on him. In course of time, all Chhibbers belonging to the village of Karyala adopted this title.

~ Source: Wikipedia