Guru Gobind Singh about this sound pronunciation (help·info) (born Gobind Rai (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ,; 22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708) was the tenth of the ten Sikh Gurus, the eleventh guru being the living perpetual Guru, Guru Granth Sahib (the sacred text of Sikhism). He was a Warrior, Poet and Philosopher. He succeeded […]
Guru Gobind Singh about this sound pronunciation (help·info) (born Gobind Rai (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ,; 22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708) was the tenth of the ten Sikh Gurus, the eleventh guru being the living perpetual Guru, Guru Granth Sahib (the sacred text of Sikhism). He was a Warrior, Poet and Philosopher. He succeeded his father Guru Tegh Bahadur as the Leader of Sikhs at the young age of nine. He contributed much to Sikhism; notable was his contribution to the continual formalisation of the faith which the first Guru Guru Nanak had founded, as a religion, in the 15th century. Guru Gobind Singh, the last of the living Sikh Gurus, initiated the Sikh Khalsa in 1699, passing the Guruship of the Sikhs to the Eleventh and Eternal Guru of the Sikhs, the Guru Granth Sahib.
Guru Gobind Singh was born as Gobind Rai in Patna, Bihar in India. His father Guru Tegh Bahadur, was the ninth Sikh Guru. His mother’s name was Mata Gujri. He was born while his father wation included study of languages and training as a Soldier. He had started studying Hindi and Sanskrit while at Patna. At Anandpur Sahib, he started studying Punjabi under Sahib Chand, and Persian under Qazi Pir Mohammad. He married to Mata Sundari (also known as Mata Jito) and they had four sons Sahibzada Ajit Singh, Zorawar Singh, Jujhar Singh and Fateh Singh. Guru Tegh Bahadur had founded the city of Anandpur Sahib in 1665, on land purchased from the ruler of Bilaspur (Kahlur). After his tour of eastern parts of India ended, he asked his family to come to Anandpur. Gobind Rai reached Anandpur (then known as Chakk Nanaki), on the foothills of the Sivalik Hills, in March 1672.
Leaving of Anandpur and Return.
In April 1685, Guru Gobind Singh shifted his residence to Paonta in Sirmaur state at the invitation of Raja Mat Prakash of Sirmaur. According to the gazetteer of the Sirmur State, the Guru was compelled to quit Anandpur Sahib due to differences with Bhim Chand, and went to Toka. From Toka, he was invited to Nahan, the capital of Sirmaur by Mat Prakash. From Nahan, he proceeded to Paonta. Mat Prakash invited the Guru to his kingdom in order to strengthen his position against Raja Fateh Shah of Garhwal. At the request of Raja Mat Prakash, the Guru constructed a fort at Paonta with help of his followers, in a short time. The Guru remained at Paonta for around three years, and composed several texts.
The hostility between Nahan King and Fateh Shah, the Garhwal king continued to increase during the latter’s stay at Paonta, ultimately resulting in the Battle of Bhangani near Paonta. Fateh Shah attacked on 18 September 1688; the battle ended with the Guru’s victory. In the Battle of Nadaun in 1687, the armies of Alif Khan and his aides were defeated by the allied forces of Bhim Chand, Guru Gobind Singh and other hill Rajas. According to Bichitra Natak and the Bhatt Vahis, Guru Gobind Singh remained at Nadaun, on the banks of the River Beas, for eight days, and visited various important military chiefs. Sometime after the Battle of Bhangani, Rani Champa, the dowager queen of Bilaspur requested the Guru to return to Anandpur Sahib, or Chakk Nanaki, as it was then called, the Guru agreed. He reached Anandpur Sahib in November 1688.
In 1695, Dilawar Khan, the Mughal chief of Lahore, sent his son to attack Anandpur Sahib. Mughal army was defeated and Hussain Khan was killed. After Hussain’s death, Dilawar Khan sent his men Jujhar Hada and Chandel Rai to Sivalik Hills. However, they were defeated by Gaj Singh of Jaswal. The developments in the hill area caused anxiety to the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, who sent forces under the command of his son, to restore Mughal authority in the region.
Founding of the Khalsa
In 1699, the Guru sent hukmanamas (letters of authority) to his followers, requesting them to congregate at Anandpur on 13 April 1699, the day of Vaisakhi (the annual harvest festival). He addressed the congregation from the entryway of a small tent pitched on a small hill (now called Kesgarh Sahib). He first asked everyone who he was for them? Everyone answered – “You are our Guru.” He then asked them who were they, to which everyone replied – “We are your Sikhs.” Having reminded them of this relationship, He then said that today the Guru needs something from his Sikhs. Everyone said, “Hukum Karo, Sache Patshah” (Order us, True Lord). Then drawing his sword he asked for a volunteer who was willing to sacrifice his head. No one answered his first call, nor the second call, but on the third invitation, Daya Ram (later known as Bhai Daya Singh) came forward and offered his head to the Guru. Guru Gobind Rai took the volunteer inside the tent. The Guru returned to the crowd with blood dripping from his sword. He then demanded another head. One more volunteer came forward, and entered the tent with him. The Guru again emerged with blood on his sword. This happened three more times. Then the five volunteers came out of the tent in new clothing unharmed.
Guru Gobind Singh then poured clear water into an iron bowl and adding Patashas (Punjabi sweeteners) into it, he stirred it with double-edged sword accompanied with recitations from Adi Granth. He called this mixture of sweetened water and iron as Amrit (“nectar”) and administered it to the five men. These five, who willingly volunteered to sacrifice their lives for their Guru, were given the title of the Panj Pyare (“the five beloved ones”) by their Guru. They were the first (baptized) Sikhs of the Khalsa: Daya Ram (Bhai Daya Singh), Dharam Das (Bhai Dharam Singh), Himmat Rai (Bhai Himmat Singh), Mohkam Chand (Bhai Mohkam Singh), and Sahib Chand (Bhai Sahib Singh).
Guru Gobind Singh then recited a line which has been the rallying-cry of the Khalsa since then: ‘Waheguru ji ka Khalsa, Waheguru ji Ki Fateh’ (Khalsa belongs to God; victory belongs to God). He gave them all the name “Singh” (lion), and designated them collectively as the Khalsa, the body of baptized Sikhs. The Guru then astounded the five and the whole assembly as he knelt and asked them to in turn initiate him as a member, on an equal footing with them in the Khalsa, thus becoming the sixth member of the new order. His name became Gobind Singh. Today members of the Khalsa consider Guru Gobind as their father, and Mata Sahib Kaur as their mother. The Panj Piare were thus the first baptised Sikhs, and became the first members of the Khalsa brotherhood. Women were also initiated into the Khalsa, and given the title of kaur (“princess”). Guru Gobind Singh then addressed the audience –
“ From now on, you have become casteless. No ritual, either Hindu or Muslim, will you perform nor will you believe in superstition of any kind, but only in one God who is the master and protector of all, the only creator and destroyer. In your new order, the lowest will rank with the highest and each will be to the other a bhai (brother). No pilgrimages for you any more, nor austerities but the pure life of the household, which you should be ready to sacrifice at the call of Dharma. Women shall be equal of men in every way. No purdah (veil) for them anymore, nor the burning alive of a widow on the pyre of her spouse (sati). He who kills his daughter, the Khalsa shall not deal with him. ”
Arya samaj hindu writer Lala Daulat Rai wrote books on guru gobind singh by name of “Mahabali Guru Gobind Singh Svaan-e-umri” & “sahib-e-kamaal guru gobind singh”. in which he wrote “if there is no guru gobind singh then today india will be a muslim country like afghanistan, turkmenistan”
100 years back a muslim poet Allah yaar khan jogi wrote books in memory of guru gobind singh ji and martyrdom of his four sons by name of “Ganj-e-shahidan” & “Shahidan-e-wafa”. to wrote these poems it will two years to complete these books.